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7.General Hannibal#39;s Elephant Cavalry7.汉尼拔将军的大象奇兵One of the most famous wartime scenes in all of world history is Hannibal crossing the Alps with his army riding on elephants to scare the Romans and give them a series of unforgettable battles. The legends claim that not only did he cross the mountains with a large company of elephants in his army, but that a multitude of them showed up at major battles against the Romans.有幕战争场景赫赫有名,永载世界史册,那就是汉尼拔(Hannibal) 骑着大象,率领大军翻越阿尔卑斯山脉(the Alps),将罗马人打了个措手不及,并发起一系列惊心动魄的大战。在这个传奇的故事里,这训练有素的大象骑兵,不仅跟着汉尼拔翻越了阿尔卑斯山,而且在与罗马对抗的几场重大战役中,也都有它们的身影。According to historians, it is likely all or most of this tale is total fabrication, much of it cooked up by Roman writers at the time who wanted to make Hannibal seem more intimidating so that his defeat would make their generals look more glorious.史学家们认为,这可能全属凭空捏造,至少绝大部分为编造。当时的罗马作家虚构了大部分场景,将汉尼拔的形象塑造得令人生畏,旨在以汉尼拔的溃不成军来反衬那些罗马大将的无上荣耀。Historians have reason to believe most of the elephants originally brought along did not even survive the crossing, leaving Hannibal with only a handful at best—if any survived at all, that is. Some accounts of large numbers of elephants also claim that the animals were spooked at the sound of battle. These accounts also suggest that the war-bred animals with trained riders on their backs went crazy and trampled through Hannibal#39;s own line during major battles.史学家认为,象群里大多数成员本就无法存活,遑论翻越阿尔卑斯山脉;即便存活下来,适者生存,那么留下的自然也只是象群里的少数“精英”。关于这群数量庞大的大象骑兵,有说法是他们在战场上受到惊吓,也有说法是训练员骑着大象,不料大象狂性大发,在多次重要战争中突破了汉尼拔军队的防线。As far as many historians are concerned, these stories sound like utter myth, and it#39;s most likely there was not a single elephant at any of the major battles Hannibal staged against the Roman Empire.众多史学家认为,这些都是彻头彻尾的神话故事。汉尼拔与古罗马抗衡的任何一场大型战役中,其实都没有“大象骑兵”助阵。6.Napoleon Would Have Won The Battle Of Waterloo If Only He...6.其实拿破仑也可以赢得滑铁卢战役,只要他……Napoleon Bonaparte was one of of the greatest military strategists and conquerors to ever walk the globe. Many people still laud him for his tactics, and his actions certainly changed the world. Many people know well that Napoleon#39;s final defeat, the one that was said to finally break him, was the Battle of Waterloo. Most stories claim that if not for losing this battle, Napoleon could have gone on to regain control of everything he had lost and perhaps conquer even more than he had before. According to many historians, on the other hand, such an outcome would have been extremely unlikely in any situation.拿破仑·波拿巴(Napoleon Bonaparte )是世界上最伟大的军事战略家和征者之一。至今仍有许多人对他的战术称赞不已,且他的行为也确实改变了世界。大家都知道拿破仑的最后一战是滑铁卢战役(the Battle of Waterloo),也就是他最终被击败的那场战役。很多故事里都是这样说的:如果拿破仑赢得了滑铁卢战役,那他就能重新掌控自己所失去的东西,也许还能征他不曾拥有的东西。不过很多历史学家都说,这种情况是无论如何也不会发生的。Various historians have pointed out different ways that he could have won the Battle of Waterloo. They theorize that if he had led the battle more personally, pressed his advantage in certain key situations, or taken certain risks, he may have been able to wrest victory from the jaws of defeat. Most of these theories hinge on knowing what we know in hindsight, but that isn#39;t the main reason Napoleon#39;s success was so unlikely.有很多历史学家提出了各种各样可以让拿破仑赢得滑铁卢战役的方法。他们提出,如果拿破仑在战争中表现得更“任性”一些,在关键时候发挥自己的优势,或者再冒险一些,那么他就有可能险中取胜。虽然我们在这里吐槽以上结论都是事后诸葛亮,但这并不是我们认为拿破仑不可能获胜的主要原因。The problem was that even if Napoleon had somehow managed a successful victory, it would have still been an absurdly uphill battle for him from that point forward. His support from his own people was waning, and his enemies were consolidating their forces, allying against him and mounting serious resistance that even his genius would have likely been unable to overcome. The Battle of Waterloo may have been his last major defeat, but he was aly unlikely to have any chance at a real comeback.其实问题的关键在于,就算拿破仑最终在滑铁卢战役中赢得了胜利,在那之后,他还是会遇到滑铁卢这样荒谬可笑的艰苦战役。那时候拿破仑统治下的人民对他的持已经大不如前,而他的敌人们则结成同盟,不断地巩固自己的力量,并对他设下重重阻碍,即使天才如拿破仑,面对如此险峻的形势,恐怕也难以克。5.The Harshness Of The Treaty Of Versailles Led To World War II5.其实是凡尔赛条约的苛刻条件导致了第二次世界大战One of the most commonly repeated myths about World War II is that the reason it started in the first place was that the Germans were disaffected by the harshness of the Treaty of Versailles. The claim goes that the deal was so financially tough on Germany that it created a deep well of resentment, allowing Hitler and his Nazi Party to take control of the reins of power and then go on a rampage of destruction. For a while, this was a fairly commonly held belief, but a history professor from Toronto named Dr. Margaret MacMillan has been studying every angle of this theory, and her conclusion is that people are getting the history all wrong.关于二战,最广为流传的一种观点是:二战起因是德国对凡尔赛条约(the Treaty of Versailles)的苛刻条件感到不满。德国方面表示条约上的经济条件太过苛刻,导致国内上下怨声载道,使得希特勒及其纳粹党执掌了政权,从而造成了毁灭性的的破坏。曾经有段时间很多人都坚信以上观点,但是,来自多伦多的历史学教授玛格丽特·麦克米伦士(Dr. Margaret MacMillan)从各方面研究了这一理论后,最终得出的结论却是:一直以来,人们对于这段历史的看法都是错的。In fact, Dr. Macmillan#39;s conclusion is that if the Treaty of Versailles had any effect on World War II, it#39;s that it was not harsh enough. The treaty hurt the Germans, but it didn#39;t leave them in a truly defeated state. It left them annoyed. This left Hitler just enough resentment to amass a following and left Germany with enough force left to cause serious trouble. It could easily be argued that the Treaty of Versailles is proof of how compromise can sometimes fail. What began as an attempt not to be too lenient or too harsh resulted in a failed compromise.实际上在麦克米伦看来,如果要说凡尔赛条约对二战的爆发有一定影响,那一定是因为该条约还不够苛刻。虽然凡尔赛条约使德国蒙受了损失,但德国并没有因此而觉得自己沦为了战败国,人们只是因此感到恼火而已。这不但让希特勒愤懑不平开始集结人马,也使得德国拥有足够的力量来发起战争。因此有人认为,凡尔赛条约恰恰明了妥协有时候反而会事与愿违。开始的时候人们总想尝试着不要过于宽容或是过于苛刻,从而妥协,结果却起到了相反的作用。It could certainly be argued that Hitler played up the Treaty of Versailles and tried to make it sound terrible in order to sway people to his side, but people also forget the amount of popular support Hitler actually had. Many people forget that Hitler#39;s Nazi Party never won enough votes to outright get him the highest elected position. Hitler managed to take his seat of power through a lot of backroom deals, subterfuge, and who knows what else behind the scenes. The Nazis were skilled propagandists and would have used the Treaty of Versailles to help achieve their ends, but the idea that Hitler used it to sweep himself to victory in a popular election is a myth.有人认为是希特勒把凡尔赛条约渲染得很可怕,从而号召人们持他,但是这些人却忘了,早已经有很多人衷心拥护着希特勒;他们也忘了,希特勒的纳粹党从未赢得足够的选票助他获得总理职位。希特勒其实是通过幕后交易和阴谋诡计扩大了自己的势力,谁又知道这其中有什么黑幕呢?纳粹党确实精于宣传,也会利用凡尔赛条约来达到自己的目的,但希特勒却并不是凭借于此才在大选中获胜的。4.The Tet Offensive Determined The Vietnam War4.“春节攻势”战役决定了越南战争Many people think of the Tet Offensive as the final push that proved the ed States couldn#39;t win the Vietnam War. North Vietnam#39;s ability to make such a military push after the long, punishing years of fighting was evidence that the war was at an end. Finally, the ed States retreated from Vietnam and put an end to the war and the madness of the previous years.大多数人认为,“春节攻势”战役作为最终攻势显示,美国无法赢得越南战争。北越在经历了长久疲惫战后,还能有巨大的军事力量反攻,昭示了战争结束在望。果不其然,美国从越南撤兵,为这场战争和这些疯狂的作战日子划上了句号。However, while it is true the Tet Offensive was the turning point of the war and likely caused the end of it indirectly, the truth is that the war was far from lost militarily. In fact, if we had continued fighting for much longer after the Tet Offensive, historians now believe we likely would have won soundly.“春节攻势”确实是战争的转折点,也可能间接促使战争结束,但战争远非美国失去军事力量那么简单。事实上,历史学家认为,如果美国在“春节攻势”后坚持奋战,极有可能稳胜越南。The Tet Offensive actually caused the North Vietnamese forces to sp themselves dangerously thin—an incredibly risky move. Fortunately, the gamble paid off, but only because the American public was so deeply tired of the war. When the images, scenes, and reports from the Tet Offensive played on news channels across the ed States, an aly exhausted and demoralized public felt that the war was lost. Before long, the unpopular war was over. The ed States simply lost the will to continue.不过,“春节攻势”可谓破釜沉舟之战,北越冒险分散了兵力。让人欣喜的是,孤注一掷取得了成效——但取胜的真相,仅是因为美国民众对这场战争深感疲倦。当“春节攻势”的图片、影像、报道在全美的新闻渠道中流传时,美国民众就已经开始意志低落,认为战争失败了。不久之后这场万众唾骂的战争结束,原因不过是美国失去了继续作战的意愿。审校:瑶瑶Yvonne 校对:丸子 编辑:Freya然 /201507/386946Interested in 37 newfangled apps that will save you 0.01 percent on travel for the coming year? I didn’t think so. At some point, you have to stop trying to find every new tool for and shortcut to bargains as they appear and just wait to see which ones stick. By now, you surely know some basics: You probably use meta-search sites to compare airfare and hotel prices; you’ve either tried or consciously avoided “sharing economy” services like Uber; you know that most domestic car rental reservations can be canceled with no penalty should you find a better rate even on the day of the trip.在新的一年里,有37个新奇的app能给你省0.01%的旅费。你有兴趣吗?我觉得你不会。在某个时刻,你必须停止努力寻找每个新出现的工具和讲价捷径,等等看哪些app能存活下来。到目前为止,你肯定知道一些基本情况:你很可能使用元搜索网站来比较机票和酒店价格;你可能尝试过或有意避免Uber这样的“分享经济”务;你知道如果找到了更便宜的租车价格,美国国内的大部分租车预约务可以取消,且没有任何惩罚,即便是在旅行当天取消。So instead of offering wacky tricks, here are eight ways to take strategies you aly know and do them better — with, O.K., a few new appealing tools thrown in.所以,我在这里提供的不是怪异的窍门,而是如何利用你已经知道的策略,以及如何更好使用它们的八个方法。好吧,里面也包括几个吸引人的新工具。Uncomfortable with strangers living with you? Equally unexcited to bunk with strangers? Or simply hesitant about Airbnb’s legal struggles? Take a baby step into the sharing economy by renting out your car while you’re away and get free airport parking to boot. Or rent someone else’s car for less than most traditional companies and forget about monitoring the ebb and flow of daily rates as your trip approaches. FlightCar.com is now operating in Boston, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Washington and Los Angeles, among other cities. If you’re leaving your car at an airport, you will get between Do you always go for the wrong men, but have the most perfect pet? Then this relationship advice may be for you。你是不是一直选错男人却拥有着一只最完美的宠物?那么这个恋爱建议可能就是为你准备的。 A leading love expert has suggested there are parallels between picking the perfect partner and the way you choose your dog。一个前沿爱情专家表示,选择一个完美伴侣的方式和你选方式有很多相似之处。Author and relationship coach Dr Annie Kaszina Ph.D - who is the first to admit she has her own chequered relationship history - discovered that by applying these principles she could finally make the right choices。作家兼恋爱教练安妮·卡斯楠士是第一个承认自己有过糟糕爱情史的相关专家。她发现通过运用这些原则,她终于可以做出正确的选择了。When Annie met Orlandino it was love at first sight: the big brown eyes, the irresistible looks, the knack he had of making her laugh。安妮与奥兰蒂诺相遇的时候可谓是一见钟情:大大的棕色眼睛,魅力十足的长相,有让她呵呵大笑的本领。But sadly, he wasn#39;t a keeper. Beneath that charming exterior lay some unsavoury habits and a difficult and a very demanding personality. Orlandino was the dog from hell。但遗憾的是,他不值得她与之厮守。在他那迷人的外表下隐藏着一些令人讨厌的习惯和令人难以相处,很强势的性格。奥兰蒂诺就像一只地狱犬。What Annie learned from that encounter set her on the path to becoming a women#39;s relationship coach。安妮在那次恋爱经历中吸取的教训让她走上了成为一名女性恋爱专家的道路。She learned her lesson, chose her second dog - and her current lovely partner - with a lot more care, and has since taught hundreds of women simple ways to spot the right man for them, using her pet as the template。她吸取了教训,更加谨慎小心地给自己挑了第二只,也就是她现在的情人。从此以后她把自己的宠物作为范例,教给了几百位女性简单找到她们另一半的方法。Now Annie shares ten of her tips with Femail ers, inspired by her new book, entitled Do You Choose Your Dog More Carefully Than Your Husband?, which comes out on Valentine#39;s Day。现在安妮把她在新书《你在选时比你在选丈夫时更仔细吗?》中所体会的10个小窍门分享给Femail栏目读者。这本书将在情人节发行。1. Temperament is king性格是最重要的Mean, moody, and magnificent may sound exciting… So, too, may the idea of taking on a challenge, or #39;taming#39; someone #39;wild#39;。吝啬,情绪化,气宇轩昂等性格特征可能听起来让人很兴奋。让人想要接受挑战,驯“野兽”。Unfortunately, they lead to hard work relationships; and hard work relationships lead to emotional exhaustion and breakdown。不幸的是,这会导致艰难的恋爱关系;艰难的恋爱关系会导致情感衰竭以及精神崩溃。Better to look for someone sunny and sweet-natured。最好是找个阳光的,脾气好的。Think about the way a date projects himself on first meeting and beyond. Why would pessimism or negativity be an aphrodisiac?想想看约会对象在第一次见面和之后的日子里举手投足的方式。一个悲观消极,充满负能量的人怎么会催发你的情欲呢?2. Check the pedigree查一查家庭背景Obviously, this is simpler with dogs than it is with people, and can#39;t be settled on a first date. But then Rome wasn#39;t built in a day, and nor should relationships be。通常而言,挑人不像挑那么简单,可以第一次见面就下决定。但是罗马不是一天建成的,恋爱关系也不是。You can listen to the way they talk about parents, family members, and friends。你可以听听他们讨论父母,家庭成员,和朋友的方式。If they come across as Billy-no-mates, there is cause for concern。如果他们恰巧没什么朋友,那你就要引起注意了。3. Beware yappiness让自己开心Unless you#39;re okay with saddling yourself with Mr I#39;m Great, Mr Alpha Male, Mr In Love With The Sound of His Own Voice, or Mr Life and Soul of the Party, be careful of over-talkers。除非你愿意和自大,大男子主义,自吹自恋,派对霸王这样的男人在一起,不然就要当心那些自吹自擂的人了。Incessant talking on a first date may be a sign of nerves, but also a lack of interest in the other person and a lack of social skills。第一次约会就很话唠可能是紧张的表现,但也是对对方缺乏兴趣和交际能力差的表现。They need to take an interest in you too (This holds just as true for Strong, Silent Types)。他们也要对你感兴趣(这同样对闷骚型的男人也适用。)Asking non-intrusive questions is not rocket science。问一些不具有侵犯性的问题不是个复杂的事情。4. Good manners有礼貌This goes without saying. But it#39;s not limited to table manners。这是不言而喻的。但也不止于餐桌礼仪。Snarliness towards waiters, children, and anyone outside the charmed circle of you and your date is a bad sign of things to come。对务员,孩子和任何其他在你俩二人世界之外的人纠缠不清是个不好的现象。Selective good manners actually suggest that those manners are not deeply ingrained and may soon melt away。过于讲究好礼貌事实上表明了这些礼貌并不是根深蒂固的,可能很快就没有了。5. Over-exuberance精力过度旺盛Pushy does not mean keen. It means pushy。强势并不意味着他特别喜欢你,强势就是强势。First date pushiness is the sign of someone who doesn#39;t respect boundaries and will end up pushing you into emotional corners。第一次约会就表现的咄咄逼人意味着他并不尊重彼此的界限,结果会把你推向情感的死角。6. Good behavior举止得体Many a woman who has overlooked a little first date leering - at other women - has lived to rue the day。很多女人忽视了第一次约会对其他女性抛媚眼的重要性,之后都悔不当初。You have standards for how you would dress and behave on a first date. Your date should, too。你有第一次约会自己穿衣和举止得体的标准。你的约会对象也应该有这样的标准。If your date#39;s behaviour violates your standards in any way that#39;s a clear sign that you could be in for a rough ride。如果你的约会对象的举止违反了你的标准,不论怎样那就很明显意味着你之后的约会会举步维艰。7. Docility温顺You want your date to be sensitive and responsive to your wishes。你想让你的约会变得和你所想的一样心思细密,符合你的心愿。Choosing your meal for you, unasked, or making decisions for you without consulting you is a clear sign of wanting to be top dog。没有问你,就为你选好了食物;没有问你,就为你做好了决定,这些都很明显表现出他想主导这个约会。Do you want to be reduced to playing Bottom Dog?你想被逼到只能当败犬吗?8. Playfulness活泼快乐You want someone not just to have fun with, but someone who#39;s fun to be around。你想要的不仅仅是一个能够一起愉快的玩耍的人,更应该是一个能让你在他身边感到快乐的人。That doesn#39;t necessarily mean someone who acts like a kid - what long-term kids are actually looking for is second mummies. You want someone who you feel comfortable enough around to be silly with。这并不一定意味着某人表现的很像个孩子,那些长不大的“孩子”想要的是第二个妈妈。你想要一个让你感觉很舒的人,和他在一起又感觉傻乎乎的。9. Beware rogue breeders小心流氓的饲养员If you#39;ve been single for a while, friends may take it upon themselves to set you up with #39;lovely dates#39;。如果你长时间单身,你的朋友们就会担负起帮你制造约会的的责任。Just because they find that date #39;lovely#39; in the context in which they know them doesn#39;t mean you will。他们从他们自身来观察,觉得这场约会将会十分美好,但这并不意味着你也会感同身受。You wouldn#39;t buy a house just on the say-so of Mrs Bloggs three doors down。你不会因为某人的三言两语就去买个房子。You always have to do your own due diligence。你必须要做好你自己应做的准备。10. Leave the paperwork at home把纸上谈兵抛之脑后Women are terrible at playing #39;Fantasy Future#39; - they go on a first date and, provided the man isn#39;t an obvious freak or psychopathic monster, they get busy imagining their future life with that person。女人幻想未来的能力很差。她们在第一次约会就幻想着她们和那个人的未来生活,假设这个男人不是个怪胎或心理变态。A first date is not designed to be a marriage contract. It#39;s simply the start of getting to know another person。第一次约会并以一定会通向一场婚礼。而只是了解一个人的开始。If you find yourself fantasising about that happy future, take a cold shower, or speak to a grounded friend。如果你发现自己在幻想美好的未来,那就去洗个冷水澡,或者找个讲道理的好朋友谈谈。 /201507/386185.05 and Li Sao is a Chinese poem dating from the Warring States Period, largely written by Qu Yuan (340 - 278 ) of the Kingdom of Chu. One of the most famous poems of pre-Qin China, it is a representative work of the Chu Ci form of poetry.《离骚》是战国时期的诗歌,大部分由楚国屈原(公元前340-278)创作。作为楚辞的代表作,《离骚》是先秦时期最著名的诗歌之一。The title#39;s meaning has been debated about even in historical times. Sima Qian interprets the title as ;Woes of Departure; i.e. Qu Yuan#39;s exile, while Ban Gu interprets it as ;Encountering Trouble;. Sima Qian#39;s interpretation is the more adopted one, though recent scholars also theorise that Li Sao is simply a different way of writing Lao Shang; the latter is a generic name for a Chu song. In English the title is often translated as either The Lament or Encountering Trouble.“离骚”这个题目的意义在历史上颇有争议。司马迁将其翻译为“离别之悲痛”意指屈原被流放;班固将其译为“遭遇忧患”。尽管新进学者们认为“离骚”只是“劳商”的另一种写法,而“劳商”即楚国歌曲的总称,人们还是多以司马迁的译法为准。英语中“离骚”一般被翻译为“悲歌”或“遭遇忧患”。The poem has a total of 372 lines and about 2400 characters, which makes it one of the longest poems dating from Ancient China. While the precise date of composition is unknown it is one of Qu Yuan#39;s later works, written after his exile by King Huai I of Chu.《离骚》共有372行,2400余字,是中国古代以来最长的诗歌之一。虽然《离骚》的具体创作时间未知,但可以确定它是在屈原被楚怀王流放之后的作品。As a representative work of Chu poetry it makes use of a wide range of metaphors derived from the culture of Chu, including shamanistic elements such as divination and the presence of spirits, as well as references in ancient history and legendary figures. Because of these influences the poem is seen as an initiator of a Romantic tradition of poetry in China.作为楚辞的代表作,《离骚》中有大量源自楚国文化的比喻,包括占卜、显灵等萨满教元素,以及历史和神话传说中的人物形象。因此,这首诗开创了中国诗歌的浪漫主义先河。 /201506/381343.20 per mile driven, plus that free parking if you are renting out your car. Savings can be significant: As of late December you could rent from FlightCar in Boston in January for as low as a day (including tax and insurance), more than 40 percent less than the cheapest listing I found on Kayak (not including insurance).和陌生人住在一起会让你觉得不安?也不想和陌生人睡上下铺?或者就是对Airbnb的法律纠纷心怀疑虑?你可以初步尝试一下分享经济,在外出旅行时把车租出去,这样还能免费在机场停车。或者试试租别人的汽车,价格比大多数传统公司都低,这样就不用在旅行临近时关注每日车价的涨跌。FlightCar.com现在在波士顿、旧金山、费城、华盛顿和洛杉矶等城市运营。如果你把车留在机场租出去,你的车每跑一英里,你就能赚0.05至0.20美元,另外还能省去机场停车费。你能省很多钱:在12月底,通过FlightCar你能以每天19美元的低价约到1月份波士顿的汽车(含税费和保险费),比我在Kayak上找到的最便宜的价格(不含保险费)还低40%多。If even cars are a bit much for you, how about renting someone’s bike? Spinlister.com started in 2012 and has since sp across the world; last December it added skis and this past summer expanded to surfboards and standup paddle boards.如果连租车你都嫌贵,那租自行车怎么样?Spinlister.com网站于2012年开创,后来扩展到全球。2013年12月它增加了租滑雪板业务,去年夏天扩展到冲浪板和站立式划桨板租赁。Nothing on Airbnb says you can negotiate a better price when you book rooms or apartments or houses or yurts, but nothing says you can’t, either. Write the host a note that goes something like this: “Your place looks great but it’s a bit outside my price range. Would you consider a night?” (It’s not as likely to work if the property is managed by a third party rather than directly by the owner.) You’ve also probably noticed Airbnb’s service fees of 6 to 12 percent when they ambush you before you finalize your reservation. A new start-up with a cute name, hovelstay.com, charges a lower 3 percent service fee and caps its (pre-fee) prices at a night — no more browsing jealously through those gorgeous, unaffordable Airbnb digs. Instead, Hovelstay, which previously was available only to students, breaks things down into three groups: “survival hovels,” “good enough” and “clean amp; comfortable.;Airbnb上没说预订房间、公寓、房子或帐篷时可以讲价,但也没说不能。你可以给主人写这样一封短信:“你的房子看起来很棒,但比我的预算高了一点。你看60美元一晚行吗?”(如果房产不是房主直接管,而是交由第三方管理,很可能讲不下价)。你可能也注意到,在你最终预订之前,Airbnb会宰你一刀,它的务费是6%至12%。hovelstay.com是个新网站,名字很可爱,它的务费不到3%,而且房价是每晚最高99美元(不含手续费)——不用再艳羡地浏览Airbnb上那些租不起的漂亮房子。Hovelstay之前仅面向学生,它包括“仅供生存”、“足够好”和“干净舒适”这三类房子。Flying through an airline’s hub rather than going nonstop is the oldest savings trick in the book. But a stopover in Kiev? That’s new. Ukrainian International Airlines began flying out of New York in late April — tragically bad timing. Less than three months later, a Malaysia Airlines jet was shot down near the Ukraine-Russia border amid unrest in the southern and eastern parts of the country itself (far from Kiev). But the airline staged a comeback with almost absurd promotional rates from New York (Dubai for 3?), and although tickets are going fast, as of this writing you can still get from New York to Istanbul or Athens for 9 in February, for example; to Bangkok for 3 in May. All have very reasonable layovers. I couldn’t resist, and booked a flight from New York to Tbilisi, Georgia, and back from Yerevan, Armenia, for 3, with two checked bags (great!) and Ukrainian airplane food (hmmmm).搭需要转机的航班而非直达航班是众所周知的最古老的省钱方法。但是在基辅转机?那可是新鲜事。去年4月底,乌克兰国际航空公司开通了很多从纽约起飞的航班——不幸的是,那个时机很糟糕。不到三个月后,由于乌克兰东南部(离基辅很远)的动乱,马来西亚航空公司的一架飞机在乌俄边境被击落。不过这家航空公司以近乎荒谬的促销价卷土重来(从纽约飞到迪拜只用453美元?)。虽然机票卖得很快,但就在我写这篇文章时,你仍能以479美元的价格买到2月份从纽约飞往伊斯坦布尔或雅典的机票,以953美元的价格买到5月份飞往曼谷的机票。这些航班的转机地点都很合理。我没忍住,花了493美元订了一个从纽约飞往格鲁吉亚第比利斯、再从从亚美尼亚耶烈万返程的航班,包含两件免费托运行李(太棒了!)以及乌克兰机餐(美味)。To state the obvious, some countries are just more expensive than others. I found that out on a trip through Scandinavia, where I ran through cash maybe five times as quickly as I had in an earlier trip to Bolivia. But how cheap a country is can change from year to year, especially as its currency changes. I ran the currencies for most major (and some minor) tourist destinations from Jan. 1, 2014, to late December and found out which ones lost the most ground against the dollar. You probably have aly heard that the Russian ruble is tanking (as of late December, a dollar will get you 94 percent more than it did a year ago), but here are some other countries where you would get at least 13 percent more cash for your cash if you arrived there right now: Argentina (31 percent), Chile (16 percent), Mongolia (15 percent), Israel (13 percent) and — yes — Sweden (16 percent) and Norway (21 percent). It was also a bad year for the euro, which means right now is a good time to go to Europe: You would receive about 10 percent more for your dollar in countries from Portugal to Slovakia. (Of course, not all goods and services will be exactly that much cheaper, including hotels that set rates based on the dollar.)显而易见,有些国家的消费比较高。我发现在北欧旅行时的花钱速度大约比之前在玻利维亚快五倍。但一个国家的消费水平每年都不同,特别是在汇率发生变化时。我浏览了2014年1月至12月底大部分主要(有些是次要)旅游目的地的货币汇率变化情况,找出了与美元相比贬值最多的币种。你可能已经听说俄罗斯卢布在贬值(到12月底,一美元能兑换的卢布比一年前多了94%),不过还有其他一些国家,如果你现在去的话,能至少多兑换13%的当地货币:阿根廷(31%)、智利(16%)、蒙古(15%)和以色列(13%),是的,还有瑞典(16%)和挪威(21%)。今年欧元的行情也不好,这意味着现在是去欧洲的好时机:从葡萄牙到斯洛伐克,美元能兑换的当地货币增加了约10%(当然,不是所有商品和务都会便宜那么多,比如那些按美元定价的酒店)。You spend a lot of time searching online travel agencies, but have you ever clicked the “Packages” tab? It’s not a match for every trip, but I found out this year that booking a hotel and flight together is the single fastest way to save. It’s not even that unusual to pay less for the plane fare and hotel together than you would have paid just for the flight. But it’s important to compare the price to the best deal you can find elsewhere. When a site tells you you’re saving 10 or 20 percent, that’s compared with the very same flight and hotel booked separately, which is probably not what you would have booked if you had done separate searches. Also note that flights booked through Priceline won’t always tell you your exact itinerary before you book a package, so you might end up with unsavory layovers.你花了很多时间搜寻在线旅行社,但你有没有点击过“套餐”选项?它并非适合每一次旅行,但是今年我发现一起预订酒店和航班是最快的省钱方法。你为航班和酒店一起付的钱比单买机票还便宜的情况也并非罕见。不过,重要的是,你要把这个价格与你在其他地方找到的最便宜的价格相比较。当一个网站说你能省10%或20%时,它是指与单独预订这个航班或这个酒店相比能省10%或20%,而你单独搜索的话,很可能发现更便宜的航班和酒店。还要注意,通过Priceline订购的航班并不总会在你订购套餐之前把行程路线告诉你,所以你有可能遇到不喜欢的转机地点。Probably the most common question I get is where to sleep cheaply in New York. I used to hem and haw and mumble something about Priceline bidding, but now I have a new answer: Stay in Long Island #173;City, Queens, just across the East River. When I checked what a week’s stay would cost in March at hotels one or two subway stops from Midtown, I was shocked to find that 18 of 20 hotels were 1 a night or less. (With taxes it’s 0 or less.) Do you know what Manhattan hotels cost? For that matter, do you know what Manhattan rents are? Even some city residents could save cash (and gain housekeeping service) just by moving in. The same idea can apply to other cities that have secondary clusters outside the main business district but near public transportation. Use Hipmunk’s great maps to scout out the city you’re visiting.别人问我最多的问题可能要算是在纽约住哪儿最便宜。过去我总是吾吾,咕哝一些“Priceline网上竞价”之类的话,但现在我有了一个新:住在东河对岸的皇后区长岛市(Long Island #173;City, Queens)。3月份,我查询一处距离中城一两站地铁的酒店的一周费用,震惊地发现20家酒店里有18家是每晚最多151美元(加上税最多180美元)。你知道曼哈顿酒店的价格吗?说到这个,你知道曼哈顿的租金有多贵吗?甚至连市里的一些居民搬到这里也能省钱(还能获得客房务)。这个主意也适合其他在主要商务区之外有次聚集区的城市,但是这个地方要靠近公共交通。你可以用很棒的Hipmunk地图巡视你要去的城市。If you’re like me, you still like guidebooks, but have to admit it’s tempting just to search online for what to do wherever you’re headed. But if you search “Rome attractions” or “Paris tourism,” for example, you’ll get an avalanche of messy results. Making it through 11 0 weekends around the world, I’ve learned that every city of any size or cultural importance has at least a half-dozen great activities that cost nothing, not to mention free museum days and the like. So search “London free” (without the ation marks) and choose from the bounty that follows.你可能像我一样仍然喜欢旅游指南,但必须承认,不管去哪儿,在网上找找有哪些活动也挺诱人的。但是,如果搜索“罗马景点”或“巴黎旅游”,你会得到一大堆乱七八糟的结果。在做完“在全球11个地点花100美元度周末”之后,我发现每个城市,不管大小,不管文化重要性如何,都至少会有几项免费的重要活动,更别提那些免费物馆日。所以,你可以搜索“伦敦免费”(不要加问号),从搜出来的福利中选一些吧。Budget travelers are quick to assume their credit card will make the collision damage waiver sold by car rental companies unnecessary, and that their health insurance will cover them fully while abroad. Those can be costly assumptions; credit cards normally don’t cover liability and may not cover collision in all countries, for example. Between now and your next trip, make a cup of coffee, take a deep breath, and plow through the small print of your favorite credit card’s benefit package and your health insurance’s international coverage. Everything’s online, of course, so “small print” is just a figure of speech. You might even find some benefits you didn’t know you had, like reimbursement for toiletries if your luggage is lost or for your camera lens if you drop it within 90 days of purchase — as I’ve done multiple times.穷游旅行者会想当然地认为,有了信用卡就不必操心汽车租赁公司的碰撞免责条款,健康保险将负担他们在国外的一切医疗费用。这些错误想法会让他们付出很大代价。信用卡通常不能付损害赔偿,可能不能在所有国家付碰撞责任赔偿。从现在开始,到你下次旅行之前,煮一杯咖啡,深呼吸,仔细研读你最喜欢的信用卡的福利待遇附属细则以及你健康保险的国际覆盖范围。当然,现在什么东西网上都有,所以我说“细则”其实是泛指。你甚至可能发现你之前不知道的一些福利,比方说,如果行李丢失,你能得到化妆品作为赔偿,或者如果你在购买后90天内把相机镜头摔坏了,也会得到赔偿。我就摔坏过几次。 /201501/353638When Sal Perez, a stylist and costume designer, was dressing the actress Rebel Wilson for her role in the movie “Pitch Perfect 2,” he had to find clothes for 20 outfit changes. This was an even bigger challenge than it sounds. Ms. Wilson is a plus-size actress working in a less-than-zero world.造型师、装设计师萨尔·佩雷斯(Sal Perez)在电影《完美音调2》(Pitch Perfect 2)中为女演员里贝尔·威尔森(Rebel Wilson)设计造型,他必须为她的角色找够20套装。这个挑战比听起来的要难。威尔森穿大码装,而在女演员的世界里,大部分人穿的都是超小号。Mr. Perez ended up finding some items online and designing others, which were made in his costume workshop.最后,佩雷斯在网上找到了一些衣,自己又设计了一些,在自己的装工作室里制作。“Trying to find plus-size clothes that are fashionable and well made is very difficult,” he said. “I am horrified by some of the clothes I find in the stores. I don’t know anyone who enjoys wearing polyester. I think the fashion industry has to realize the potential the plus-size market has.”“寻找时尚、制作精良的大码装非常困难,”他说,“我在商店里找到的一些衣把我吓坏了。我没见过谁喜欢穿涤纶装。我觉得时装界必须意识到大码市场的潜力。”Styles for plus sizes, which range from 14 to 24, have long been characterized by down-market, back-of-the-store racks of drab tent-dresses, garishly decorated blouses and polyester pants. The uniformly dark colors and generous silhouettes serve the sole purpose of covering up and deflecting attention from the body.长期以来,14码至24码的大码装大多是放在商店后面货架上的低档装——乏味的松身连衣裙、花哨的女衬衣和涤纶裤。它们有着千篇一律的深色和宽松的剪裁,唯一的目的是遮住身体,减少人们的关注。But a new crop of online boutiques, retailers and designers is trying to make plus-size styles more fashion forward. Instead of elastic-waist pants and muumuu dresses, these companies offer clothes that reflect the runways (think jumpsuits), surpass the smock (leather pants) and even show a little skin (crop tops).但是一些新的在线时装精品店、零售商和设计师在努力让大码装变得更时尚。这些公司提供的不是松紧带裤和宽大连衣裙,而是能反映秀台潮流的装(比如连身裤)和超出宽松工作范畴外的装(比如皮裤),甚至是暴露一点肌肤的装(比如露脐上衣)。The plus-size customer is “really letting her hair down for the first time,” said Marie Jean-Baptiste, the founder and designer of Rue107, which sells form-fitting mesh dresses (0) and purple metallic jumpsuits (, on sale from ) in sizes S to 3X.Rue107的创始人、设计师玛丽·让-巴普蒂斯特(Marie Jean-Baptiste)说,他们的装让穿大码装的顾客“第一次放松下来”。该公司销售修身网眼连衣裙(110美元)和紫色金属质感连身裤(59美元,原价89美元),尺码从S号到3X号。Customers have clamored for more and better options. Last spring Sarah Chiwaya, 30, a lawyer in Manhattan, attended a fashion event at Saks Fifth Avenue. Captivated by a perforated leather midi skirt from Tibi, she was y to spend. But the skirt was available only in small sizes.顾客们早已发出呼声,要求拥有更多更好的选择。30岁的莎拉·奇瓦亚(Sarah Chiwaya)是曼哈顿的一名律师。去年春天,她要去萨克斯第五大道精品百货店参加一场时尚活动。她看上了Tibi的一条皮质打孔超短裙,打算破费一下。但是那条裙子只有小号。“I would have bought it immediately if it were in my size, 16,” she said.“如果有我的号,16号,我肯定马上买了,”她说。Frustrated, Ms. Chiwaya turned to her blog, Curvily, and bemoaned the lack of options. She used a hashtag, #plussizeplease, that has been adopted by others across all sorts of social platforms like Tumblr, Pinterest, Instagram and Twitter.沮丧的奇瓦亚在自己的客Curvily上叹息选择太少。她加上了#plussizeplease(求大码),这个标签在各种社交平台上被广泛使用,比如Tumblr、Pinterest、Instagram和Twitter。“I wanted it to be a way to show retailers the money they’re losing,” she said.“我想通过这种方式告诉零售商他们正在让能到手的钱溜走,”她说。The market, in fact, is robust. The average American woman wears a size 14, and women wearing size 14 and up account for 67 percent of the population, according to the industry analyst firm Plunkett Research Ltd. Last summer, the NPD Group reported that plus-size clothing sales grew more than 5 percent from May 2013 to April 2014, going from .7 billion to .5 billion.实际上,这个市场很大。据行业分析公司Plunkett Research Ltd.称,美国女人的平均装尺码是14码,穿14码及以上的女人占全体美国女性的67%。去年夏天,NPD集团报告称,从2013年5月至2014年4月,大码装的销售额增长了5%以上,从167亿美元增长到了175亿美元。That is perhaps why youthful-leaning, mass-market retailers like Asos, H amp; M, Mango, Wet Seal, ModCloth and Forever 21 have begun selling either an expanded size range or a dedicated plus-size line.可能是由于这个原因,Asos、Hamp;M、Mango、Wet Seal、ModCloth和Forever 21等面向年轻大众的零售商开始销售更多尺码的装或者推出专门的大码装系列。“We work in the exact same way as Asos core brand,” said Natasha Smith, a buyer for the new line, Asos Curve, in London. “There’s nothing we wouldn’t try: hot pants, bodysuits.”“我们的运作方式与Asos的核心品牌一模一样,”购买新系列Asos Curve的伦敦买家娜塔莎·史密斯(Natasha Smith)说,“我们什么都尝试:热裤、紧身衣裤。”Several new companies are making plus-size their sole focus. One is Eloquii, which aims to do for the plus market what Zara has done in the mainstream market: offer customers options that mimic runway trends but at prices that are lower than those in boutiques and department stores.有几家新公司专门做大码女装。其中一家是Eloquii,它的目标很像Zara在主流市场的做法:在大码市场领域内向顾客提供模仿秀台潮流但价格低于精品店或商场的装。Currently, Eloquii is showing items like a leopard-print baseball jacket (8), a cashmere sweater with Breton stripes (8) and faux leather culottes ().目前,Eloquii正在展示豹纹棒球夹克(138美元)、布列塔尼条纹羊绒衫(138美元)和仿皮裤裙(98美元)。Eloquii was originally started in 2011 as a sister brand to the Limited, but was closed in 2013 when the Limited decided to shed its noncore brands. A group of former employees, including the creative director, Jodi Arnold, restarted the brand last year. (Its products are available on the label’s website as well as on Nordstrom.com). A former Gilt executive, John Auerbach, is a founding investor.2011年,Eloquii最初是作为Limited的品牌创立的,但是2013年,Limited决定甩掉非核心品牌,Eloquii因此倒闭。去年,Eloquii从前的一群员工,包括创意总监约迪·阿诺德(Jodi Arnold),复兴了这个品牌(你可以在该品牌的网站和Nordstrom.com上买到它的产品)。Gilt的前执行官约翰·奥尔巴赫(John Auerbach)是该品牌的创办投资人之一。“The team doesn’t have a plus background, which is a good thing,” said Mariah Chase, the company’s chief executive, using industry jargon to refer to the plus-size niche.“这个团队没有做大码时装的背景,这是好事,”该公司的首席执行官玛丽亚·蔡斯(Mariah Chase)说。“The starting point is trends, the runway,” Ms. Arnold added.“我们的起点是潮流,是秀台,”阿诺德补充说。For example, Eloquii’s Kady pant (made in an array of fabrics, from in a graphic rose print to in solid navy) is “a structured, fitted pant where our customer has just gotten stretch before,” Ms. Chase said. A faux-leather fitted midi skirt, 8, sold out in 72 hours, according to Ms. Arnold. The company has recently raised million from investors.蔡斯说,比如,Eloquii的卡迪裤(有各种面料,从88美元的玫瑰印花到78美元的纯蓝色)是“裁剪得当的修身裤,我们的顾客刚好能穿进去”。阿诺德说,128美元的仿皮修身超短裙在推出72小时后就卖光了。该公司最近从投资人那里筹集了600万美元。In a skinny-celebrity-obsessed world, it has been difficult to overcome the dowdy image of plus size. What’s more, many women are uncomfortable identifying themselves as plus-size shoppers, which hampers word-of-mouth.在痴迷身材纤细的名人的世界里,大码装很难推翻古板过时的形象。另外,很多女人不愿承认自己穿大码,这妨碍了口碑流传。But social media is helping to change that, said Aimee Cheshire, the president and a founder of HeyGorgeous.com, an online boutique that carries pieces from ABS By Allen Schwartz (wrap dress, 8), Lucky Brand denim (black straight-leg jeans, .50) and Ellen Tracy (angora coat, 9) in sizes 10 and up.不过,在线时装精品店HeyGorgeous.com的总裁和创始人艾梅·切希尔(Aimee Cheshire)说,社交媒体正在帮助改变这一点。该网店销售ABS By Allen Schwartz(裹裙,198美元)、Lucky Brand denim(黑色直筒牛仔裤,89.50美元)和 Ellen Tracy(羊毛外衣,169美元)等品牌的装,尺码都在10码以上(含10码)。“I’ll get emails asking, ‘How do I recommend it to my friend without offending her?’ ” Ms. Cheshire said. “I always say share it on Facebook.”“我收到一些邮件询问,‘我怎么才能在不冒犯朋友的情况下推荐你们网站?’”切希尔说,“我总是回复说,在Facebook上分享它。”She said she tries to encourage plus-size women to openly embrace their personal style rather than hide their shape. HeyGorgeous tells these women they “aren’t the ugly stepsister, they’re our main woman,” Ms. Cheshire said.切希尔说她尽量鼓励穿大码的女人公开接受自己的个人风格,而不是掩饰身材。她还说,HeyGorgeous网站对这些女人说,她们“不是丑陋的继女,而是女性的主流”。“They’re not used to being wanted,” she said. “There’s no aspiration, no Vogue for the plus sized.”“人们还不习惯去期待大码装,”她说,“在大码时装界没有抱负,没有时尚。”Most plus-size clothes could be divided into three segments: “work wear, club wear and grandma clothes,” said Nicolette Mason, a plus-size fashion blogger. The problem has not been just a lack of options for consumers, but also retailers’ belief that plus-size women can’t support a high-fashion niche.大码时装客写手尼科莱特·梅森(Nicolette Mason)说,大部分大码装可以分为三类:“工作、俱乐部装和祖母”。问题不只是顾客们缺少可选的衣,零售商们也认为穿大码装的女人撑不起高级时装这个细分市场。“When you’re taught to look at your body as a work in progress, you’re not going to spend ,000 on a coat to last forever because you’re not hoping for it to last forever,” Ms. Mason said.“如果别人教导你,让你认为自己的身体可以不断改进,那你就不会花1000美元买一件能一直穿下去的外衣,因为你不希望自己的身材永远是这样的,”梅森说。Gwynnie Bee, a clothing rental subscription service for sizes 10 to 32, is a more casual version of Rent the Runway (which began its own plus-size division in 2013). The site carries lines like BB Dakota and Three Dots. A -a-month commitment will get you one piece of clothing at a time; 10 pieces will cost 9 a month.Gwynnie Bee是一个租赁10码至32码装的订购务公司,是休闲装版的Rent the Runway(这家公司从2013年开设了大码装部门)。该网站提供BB Dakota和Three Dots等品牌的装。一个月付35美元,你便能每次能租一件衣;一个月付159美元,便可以每次租10件。In the shadow of all the new focus on how to dress a larger woman, mainstays of the fashion industry that have helped propagate the connection between high fashion and small sizes are showing a greater willingness to embrace a curvier world. Calvin Klein used the model Myla Dalbesio, who is a size 10, in a lingerie campaign. In November, Vogue.com shot a lingerie sp using plus-size models.过去,大型时装公司曾鼓吹高级时装和小码之间有着密不可分的联系。如今,如何给体型偏胖的女人设计装成了新的焦点,大公司也开始乐于接受更丰满的世界。Calvin Klein请穿10码的麦拉·戴尔伯西奥(Myla Dalbesio)担任一个内衣广告的模特。去年11月,Vogue.com请一些大码模特拍摄了一个内衣平面广告。The 2015 Pirelli calendar, shot by Steven Meisel and styled by Carine Roitfeld, included the plus-size model Candice Huffine. Two edgy clothing lines, Chromat and Zana Bayne, sent plus-size models down the runway in their presentations last September.倍耐力(Pirelli)的2015年历中有大码模特坎迪丝·赫法恩(Candice Huffine),摄影师是史蒂文·梅塞(Steven Meisel),造型师是卡琳·洛菲德(Carine Roitfeld)。两大前卫时装品牌Chromat和Zana Bayne在去年9月的时装秀上派出了大码模特。For now, any competition is welcome.目前,任何竞争都是受欢迎的。“I would love to have more places to shop, for it to be a fun leisure activity with multiple sources,” said Kelly Goldston, the director of marketing at Eloquii. As more plus-size women get into the habit of expressing their personal style, business will be better for everyone involved, she said, adding, “New players would be good for us.”“我希望有更多可以购物的地方,因为那将是汇聚人脉的有趣的休闲活动,”Eloquii的营销总监凯利·戈德斯顿(Kelly Goldston)说。她说,更多穿大码的女人养成了表现个人风格的习惯,这对所有参与这项生意的人来说都是好事,“新竞争对手将有益于我们”。 /201501/354174

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